Brief Overview Of Surveying And Its Types

Measurement is one of the key features for any sort of construction and engineering. Hence the need of surveying is so vital.

In brief, surveying is the measurement process by which surveyors can determine the position of points and the distances and angles of various objects on the earth's surface with accuracy. The entire measurement process is done horizontally by producing a map to any appropriate scale.

Surveying in different sectors:

  • To make a geographical map consisting the hills, valleys, rivers, villages, towns, forests, etc. of a country.
  • To create a cadastral map that shows the borders of fields, houses and other properties.
  • To produce an engineering map which illustrates the detailed engineering works like roads, railways, reservoirs, irrigation canals, so on.
  • To prepare a contour map to find out the capacity of a reservoir and to uncover the best possible route for roads, railways, and so forth.
  • To generate a geological map showing regions along with underground resources.

There are certain principles to perform surveying. They are as follows:

First up, the entire area is surrounded by main stations(which is also called controlling stations) and main survey lines (controlling lines). By building well positioned triangles the area is then segregated into a number of parts. An equisized triangle is contemplated as the well-fitted triangle. With the help of a standard chain the main survey lines are measured precisely. After that the sides of the same triangle are calculated. This method is used with a view to restrain accretion of error. By the way, if any error occurs, it can always be traced and removed.

In accordance with the second one, the new stations should be fixed by linear or angular measurements from fixed reference points all the time.

Different types of surveying:

Surveying is basically categorized as following:

  • Plane Surveying
  • Geodetic Surveying

Other classification of surveying:

  • Land Surveying
  • Marine Surveying
  • Astronomical Surveying

Object-based Classification:

  • Geological Surveying
  • Mine Surveying
  • Archaeological Surveying
  • Military Surveying

Instrument-based Classification:

  • Chain Surveying
  • Compass Surveying
  • Plane table Surveying
  • Theodolite Surveying
  • Tacheometric Surveying
  • Photographic Surveying

Methodical Classification:

  • Triangulation Surveying
  • Traverse Surveying